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NuWeb Glossary of Internet Marketing Terms

It is dynamic - we continuously update and add new terms



0-Day (also: Zero-day) - the same day, completely new.

301 Redirect – A 301 redirect automatically causes one URL to redirect to another and tells the Web (and search engines) that this redirect is permanent, as opposed to a temporary (302) redirect. 301 redirects are generally preferable for Search Engine Optimization purposes and are therefore often referred to as search engine friendly redirects.

404 Not Found - Standard response code indicating that the client was able to communicate with a given server, but the server could not find what was requested ("The page does not exist").  Google recommend building a custom 404 page and not leaving the ugly "404 page not found".


A/B Testing - In A/B testing, you unleash two different versions of a keyword, advertisement, website, web/landing page, banner design or variable and see which performs the best. You test version A vs. version B to see how different versions perform.

Above the Fold - With reference to the top part of a newspaper, the term is used in Internet marketing to describe the top part of the page that the user can see without scrolling down. The exact amount of space will vary by viewer because of screen settings. You often pay a premium for advertisement placements above the fold.

AdSense - Advertisement service provided by Google for site owners.

Advertising network - A network representing many Web sites in selling advertising.

AdWords - Google’s paid search marketing program.

Affiliate - A marketing partner that promotes your product or services under a pay-for-results agreement.

Affiliate marketing - Marketing with an association between advertiser, publisher and consumer.

Algorithm (also: Search Algorithm) -  regarding search engines: The process a search engine applies to web pages so it can accurately produce a list of results based on a search term. Search engines regularly change their algorithms to improve the quality of the search results. These algorithms are very complicated and search engines closely guard them as trade secrets.

ALT Tags - Short for "alternate text" - text used in HTML to describe website graphics. Mainly used for accessibility purposes (e.g. to describe the graphic to people who can't see well).

Analytics - Analytics refers to collection of data about a website and its users. Analytics programs typically give performance data on clicks, time, pages viewed, website paths, and a variety of other information. The proper use of Web analytics allows website owners to improve their visitor experience, which often leads to higher ROI for profit-based sites.

Anchor Text - The clickable words of a hypertext link; they will appear as the underlined blue part in standard Web design.

Animated GIF - A graphic in .GIF file format that creates the effect of animation by rotating through a series of static images.

Anonymous FTP - An option in FTP that allows users to download files without having to establish and account.

ASP (Active Server Pages) - a server-side scripting environment from Microsoft.

API (Application Programming Interface) - a set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software and applications. A good API makes it easier to develop a program by providing all the building blocks, which are then put together by the programmer.

Authority (trust, link juice, Google juice) - The amount of trust that a site is credited with for a particular search query.

Authority site - A website which has many incoming links from other related expert/hub sites. Because of this simultaneous citation from trusted hubs an authority site usually has high trust, page rank, and search results placement.


B2B – business that sells products or provides services to other businesses.

B2C – business that sells products or provides services to the end-user consumers.

Backlinks– Links from other websites pointing to any particular page on your site. Search engines use backlinks as one of their ranking factors to judge a site’s credibility; if a site links to you, the reasoning goes, it is in effect voting for your authority on a particular subject. Also called Inbound Links.

Bandwidth – how much data can be transmitted in a time period over a communications channel, often expressed in kilobits per second (kbps).

Banned – When pages are removed from a search engine’s index specifically because the search engine has deemed them to be violating their guidelines. Also "de-index".

Banner exchange – network where participating sites display banner ads in exchange for credits which are converted (using a predetermined exchange rate) into ads to be displayed on other sites.

Banners – Picture advertisements placed on websites. Depending upon their size and shape, banner ads may also be referred to as buttons, inlines, leaderboards, skyscrapers, or other terms. Banner ads can be static pictures, animated, or interactive.

Behavioral Targeting - Ad targeting based on past recent experience and/or implied intent. E.g. I recently searched for term "bananas" and now I get advertising for bananas.

Bing Ads - Bing network paid search service (equivalent of Google's AdWords).

Black Hat SEO – Unethical and unacceptable SEO techniques attempting ways of tricking the Search Engines to get better rankings for a website. If not immediately, using black hat methods will eventually get your site drastically lower rankings or banned from the search engines altogether.

Blacklisted - added to a Black list (list with IPs, names, sites etc. to be forbidden because of unethical acts).

Blog – Short for Web log, blogs are part journal, part website. Typically the newest entry (blog post) appears at the top of the page with older entries coming after in reverse chronological order.

1. A person who publishes content on the web using a blog.
2. A blog service powered by

Blogosphere – the community of blogs and everything else related to them.

Blogroll – a section of a blog page that contains a list of links to recommended blog sites.

Boilerplate - A certain kind of template, where the main text is considered "standard" and only the "blanks" have to be filled in. Typical boilerplates are mission statements, copyright statements, terms of use and responsibility disclaimers.

Bookmark – Also "Favorite" in some browsers. A link stored in a Web browser for future reference.

Bootstrapping -  relying entirely on one's efforts and resources.

Bot - Abbreviation for robot (also called a spider or crawler). It refers to software programs that scan the web. Bots vary in purpose from indexing web pages for search engines to harvesting e-mail addresses for spammers. Every search engine has a name of its bot - e.g. Googlebot, Bingbot, Yahoo! Slurp, etc.

Bounce Rate
1. In web analytics, the percentage of visitors who leave after viewing a single page.
2. In email marketing, the percentage of emails in a campaign that are undeliverable.

Brand Stacking - Multiple links from the same domain appearing consecutively in the search results. Benefits include increased traffic, pushing competition or negative pages down further in the search queries and increased authority, leading to brand and domain awareness.

Breadcrumb Navigation - Navigational technique used to help search engines and website users understand the relationship between pages. E.g. "Home / Analytics & Insights / Glossary" on the top of this page.

Broken Link – Link to a webpage that no longer works.

Buzzword – a trendy word or phrase that is used more to impress than explain.


Caching – the storage of Web files for later re-use at a point more quickly accessed by the end user. Used in dynamic sites' speed optimization where once dynamically generated a website is stored for certain time as a static page for faster access.

Call to Action (CTA) – the part of a marketing message that attempts to persuade a person to perform a desired action.

Canonical Tag - Code used by search engine crawlers/spiders to tell search engines what URL is the original version of your webpage. (see "rel=canonical")

Captcha – abbrev. “Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart”; a challenge-response testing system; typically an image that contains a series of ambiguated characters that the reader must re-type in a given field.

Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) – Defines how HTML elements such as layout, colors and fonts will be displayed.

Categories – Words or phrases used to organize blog posts and other pieces of information, such as albums for photos. Categories are generally broader than tags and used in instances when there will generally be multiple posts or other data points per category.

ccTLD – “Country-code” TLD‘s (Top Level Domains) showing what country a site is focused on or based in. Using Google and the United Kingdom as an example, Google UK is

CDN (Content Delivery System) – a system of geographically distributed servers designed to accelerate the delivery of web pages and files by routing user requests to the server that’s in the best position to serve them.

Click Fraud - Improper clicks on a PPC advertisement usually by the publisher or his minions for the purpose of undeserved profit.

Click through Rate (CTR)– Number of clicks / Number of impressions. Click through rate is a common internet marketing measurement tool for ad effectiveness. This rate tells you how many times people are actually clicking on your ad out of the number of times your ad is shown.

Cloaking– Showing a search engine spider or bot one version of a Web page and a different version to the end user. Several search engines have explicit rules against unapproved cloaking. Those violating these guidelines may find their pages penalized or banned from a search engine’s index.

Comment spam – Irrelevant comments posted to a blog for the sole purpose of dropping a link to the spammer’s website.

Content (text, copy) - The part of a web page that is intended to have value for and be of interest to the user. Advertising, navigation, branding and boilerplate are not usually considered to be content.

Content Management System (CMS) - Allow website owners to make text and picture changes to their websites without specialized programming knowledge of software. Content Management Systems can be edited by anyone with basic word knowledge via an internet connection. CMS examples include WordPress, Drupal, and Joomla.

Content Tags – HTML tags which define the essence of the content contained within them and readable by search spiders. These include Header and Alt Tags.

Contextual Advertising – A feature offered by major search engine advertisers allowing your advertisement to be placed next to related news articles and on other Web pages. Contextual advertising seeks to match Web content from the display page with your advertised search term(s).

Conversion Rate – the percentage of visitors who take a desired action.

Cookie – A piece of information stored on a user’s computer by a Web site so preferences are remembered on future requests.

Cost per Acquisition (CPA) – An online advertising cost structure where you pay per an agreed upon actionable event, such as a lead, registration, or sale.

Cost per Click (CPC) – A common way to pay for search engine and other types of online advertising, CPC means you pay a pre-determined amount each time someone clicks on your advertisement to visit your site. You usually set a top amount you are willing to pay per click for each search term, and the amount you pay will be equal or less to that amount, depending on the particular search engine and your competitors’ bids. Also referred to as Pay Per Click (PPC) or Paid Search Marketing.

Cost per Impression (CPM) – A common internet marketing cost structure, especially for banner advertising. You agree to pay a set cost for every 1,000 Impressions your ad receives. Search engine marketing may involve CPM costs for Contextual Advertising.

Cost per Lead (CPL) – online advertising payment model in which payment is based on the number of qualifying leads generated.

Crawler – Component of a search engine that gathers listings by automatically “crawling” the Web. A search engine’s crawler (also known as a Spider or Robot (Bot)) follows links to Web Pages. It makes copies of those pages and stores them in a search engine’s index.

Customer Experience (CX) - How customers interact with your brand at-large. It looks at how satisfied customers are with your business as a whole. Do not mix with User Experience (UX). UX is narrower term and is about how people interact with your product and how they report their experience of that interaction.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) – Software solutions that help enterprise businesses manage customer relationships in an organized way. An example of a CRM would be a database containing detailed customer information that management and salespeople can reference in order to match customer needs with products, inform customers of service requirements, etc.


Data Transfer – The total amount of outbound traffic from a website, typically measured in gigabytes (Gb).

Dedicated IP – An IP address dedicated to a single website.

Deep Linking – Linking to a website's internal page than to site’s home page.

Delisting – Also Deindex. When pages or whole websites are removed from a search engine’s index. This may happen because, but not necessarily, they have been Banned.

Description Tag – An HTML tag used by Web page authors to provide a description for search engine listings.

Directory (Directory site, Web Directory) – A site of links to related Web Pages. It is a type of site where business listings are gathered through submissions, information pulled from data aggregators, or a combination of the two. Websites are placed in a relevant category. Example:

Disavow - The link disavow tool is a way for a webmaster to state they do not vouch for a collection of inbound links to their website.

Disintermediation – The elimination of intermediaries in the supply chain, also referred to as “cutting out the middlemen".

DNS (Domain Name Server or Domain Name System). A naming scheme mechanism used to help resolve a domain name / host name to a specific TCP/IP Address.

Domain Name – A website’s main address. NuWeb's domain is

Domain Name Monitoring – Watching domains across various extensions. Some companies offer to do this for, say a .com site by checking the same domain name in .net, .org, .eu, etc.

Doorway Domain, Doorway Page – A domain / stand alone page used specifically to rank well in search engines for particular keywords, delivering very little information to those viewing it and serving as an entry point through which visitors pass to the main domain / content. Also referred to as Bridge Pages, Gateway pages and Jump Pages and not to be confused with Landing Pages.

Dwell Time - The amount of time a searcher spends on a destination website before clicking back to the search results.

Dynamic Website - Dynamic websites contain Web pages that are generated in real-time. When a dynamic page is accessed, the code within the page is parsed on the Web server and the resulting HTML is sent to the client's Web browser. Dynamic pages access information from a database. Therefore, to alter the content of a dynamic page, the webmaster may only need to update a database record.


eCommerce – The ability to purchase online.

eCPM – Effective cost per thousand impressions (technically, “effective cost per mille”).

Editorial Link - Search engines count links as votes of quality. They primarily want to count editorial links that were earned over links that were bought or bartered.

Ego Keyword – A keyword an individual or organization feels it must rank for in either or both natural listings or paid search results regardless of cost and Return on Investment.

Email Campaign System –  Allows organizations to send out emails to their email lists with a standard look and feel. Features often include the ability to segment lists.

Entities - People, places or things which search engines aim to know & present background information about.

Entry Page - The page which a user enters your site. Not necessarily the Home page. E.g. if anyone searches they are sent to the most appropriate and relevant page according to their search term.

Eyetracking – A process that allows testing of websites for usability or any other purpose.

ezine – An electronic magazine, whether delivered via a Web site or an email newsletter.


FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) - Online documents that list and answer the most common questions on a particular subject.

Favicon – A small icon associated wit ha website. Usually appears in address bar of the browser or in the title of the page.

Favorites – (see bookmarks).

Feed –  A data format which provides the user with frequently changed content. Users can stay connected to a site’s content (Blogs, news, podcasts, etc.) automatically.

FFA – free-for-all links list, where there are no qualifications for adding a link. Almost no value for SEO.

Flash – multimedia technology developed by Macromedia to allow much interactivity.

Forum – A place on the internet where people with common interests or backgrounds come together to find information and discuss topics.

Frames – a structure that allows for the dividing of a Web page into two or more independent parts. It divides the screen into segments, each with a scroll bar as if it were as "window" within the window.

Freemium – a technique where a business offers a free basic product, giving the customer an option to use an advanced version for a premium cost.

Frequency cap – restriction on the amount of times a specific visitor is shown a particular advertisement.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol) - Ability to transfer rapidly entire files from one computer to another, intact for viewing or other purposes.


Gateway page (doorway page) - A web page that is designed to attract traffic from a search engine and then redirect it to another site or page.

Gadget (widget, gizmo) - Small applications used on web pages to provide specific functions such as a hit counter or IP address display.

Geo-targeting – A method of detecting a website visitor’s location to serve location-based content or advertisements.

GIGO ("Garbage In, Garbage Out") -  If invalid data is entered, the resulting output will also be invalid.

Google juice (trust, authority, pagerank) - Trust / authority from Google, which flows through outgoing links to other pages.

Google RankBrain - Google’s machine-learning artificial intelligence system that’s used to help process its search results. It helps Google to process unique questions such as: "What is the name of the second dog of the cousin of John Doe?"

Googlebot - Google’s spider program.

Guest blogging – writing a blog post to be published on another blog as a temporary featured author.


Hashtag – A single word or phrase preceded by the # symbol to define messages relating to a particular topic. Hashtags are most commonly used on Twitter.

Headings – A standard of HTML code that applies to the formatting of text. Each heading style that can be  applied to text on a website to make it bolder and bigger than other text on the page.

Heatmap – a graphical representation of data where varying degrees of a single metric are shown using colors.

Hit – request of a file from a Web server.

House ad – self-promotional ad a company runs on their own site/network to use unsold inventory.

HTML (HyperText Markup Language) - The programming language used in websites. Developers use other languages that can be read and understood by HTML to expand what they can do on the Web.

HTML banner – a banner ad using HTML elements, often including interactive forms instead of (or in addition to) standard graphical elements.

HTML email – email that is formatted using Hypertext Markup Language, as opposed to plain text email.

Hummingbird (also: Google Hummingbird) - Google's core search algorithm. Hummingbird is paying more attention to each word in a query, ensuring that the whole query — the whole sentence or meaning — is taken into account, rather than particular single keywords. Used as of September 2013.

Hyperlink – Often blue and underlined, hyperlinks, commonly called “links” for short, allow you to navigate to other pages on the Web with a simple click of your mouse.


Image Maps – Clickable regions on images that make links more visually appealing and websites more interesting. Image maps enable spiders to “read” this material.

Impressions – The number of times someone views a page displaying an ad.

Inbound link – a link from a site outside of your site.

inbound marketing – a marketing model whose sales performance relies on the initiative of its client base to find and purchase a product.

Incentivized traffic – visitors who have received some form of compensation for visiting a site.

Index – The collection of information a search engine has that searchers can query against. With crawler-based search engines, the index is typically copies of all the Web pages they have found from crawling the Web. With human-powered directories, the index contains the summaries of all the websites that have been categorized.

Internal Linking – Placing hyperlinks on a page to other pages within the same site.

Interstitial – an advertisement that loads when navigating between two content pages.

Invisible Web – the portion of the Web not indexed by search engines.

IP (Internet Protocol) address - A numeric code that uniquely identifies a particular computer on the Internet. Using IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) the address is divided in four groups, e.g. 123.456.789.876. IPv4 allows maximum of 4,294,967,296 addresses due to its 32 bit (4-byte) system. That's why IPv6, allowing larger address space (128 bit system), was developed and put in commercial use.

ISP (Internet Service Provider) - A company that sells Internet connections


JavaScript – A scripting language developed by Netscape and used in interactive Web sites enabling dynamic content. Not to be confused with JAVA (Sun Microsystems' programming language).

jQuery - A JavaScript library that allows web developers to add extra functionality to their websites. It is the most popular JavaScript library used in web development.


Keyword (Search Term, Key Phrase) - Word or a group of words that a person may search for in a Search Engine. Keywords also refer to the terms you bid on through search engine marketing in trying to attract visitors to your website or Landing Page.

Keyword Cannibalization - The excessive reuse of the same keyword on too many web pages within the same site. This practice makes it difficult for the users and the search engines to determine which page is most relevant for the keyword.

Keyword Density - Кeywords as a percentage of indexable text words. If this value is unnaturally high the page may be penalized.

Keyword Research - The work of determining which keywords are appropriate for targeting.

Keyword Stuffing – The excessive, unnatural use of keywords on a web page for search engine optimization purposes. A sure way to receiving a penalty from Google.

Keyword Tags – HTML tags which define the keywords used on Web pages. Google is officially on record for not giving Meta keyword tags any weight. Useless for Google optimization. Only your competition gains advantage on this - they can easily obtain your keywords for which you spent a huge amount of time and money for research and optimization.

KPI (Key Performance Indicator) - the metrics you will look at to track progress toward your goals


Landing Page – The page that a user lands on when they click on a link. Usually It is the first page a person sees when coming to your website from an advertisement. This page can be any page on your website including your home page or specially designed for the purpose page.

Lead - A person that transforms from an anonymous website visitor into a known contact part of your business sales cycle.

Lead Magnet – A specific deliverable that is offered to prospects in return for contact information, typically to join an email list.

Lifetime Value of a Customer (LCV) - Prediction of the new profit attributed to the entire future relationship with the customer.

Like-gate – A barrier requiring a user to “Like” a brand’s page before they can access certain content from that brand on Facebook.

Link Building – Pro-active process of obtaining hyperlinks (links) from websites back to yours.

Link Earning - The process of obtaining links without asking; based solely on site's reputability and quality

Link Exchange - A reciprocal linking scheme - "Link to me and I'll link to you".

link Farm - A group of sites connected through linking network and selling links. The easiest way to get a Google penalty.

Link Popularity – a measure of the quantity, quality and relevance of sites that link to your site.

Link Text – The text contained in (and sometimes near) a hyperlink.

Linkbait – A piece of content (video, picture, fun stuff etc.) created with the primary purpose of attracting inbound links, often mostly via social media.

Linkerati - Internet users who are the most productive targets of linkbait. Example: social taggers, forum posters.

Local Business Listings – Each of the major search engines offer local business listings that appear next to maps at the top of the page on many locally targeted searches. Having a website is not required for having a local business listing.

Local Search – Allows users to find businesses and websites within a specific (local) geographic range.

Long Domain Name – domain names longer than the original 26 characters, up to a theoretical limit of 67 characters (including the extension, such as .com).

Long-tail Keyword - Longer keyword phrases that are used by searches to more specifically define their search intent (e.g not car dealer but second-hand Mitsubishi dealer).

LSI (Latent Semantic Indexing) - An algorithm used by search engines to determine what a page is about outside of specifically matching search query keyword. The LSI algorithm doesn't actually understand the meanings of words on the page but it can spot patterns of related words. LSI may return relevant results that don't contain the keyword at all, but those pages with related words.


Manual Submission – Adding a URL to the search engines individually by hand.

Marketing Automation – The use of software to automate repetitive tasks related to marketing activities and connect different parts of the marketing funnel.

Mashup - A web page which consists primarily of single purpose software and other small programs (gizmos and gadgets) or possibly links to such programs.

Meme -  An activity, concept, catchphrase or piece of media which spreads from person to person via the Internet. Also an image with message text incorporated in it.

Meta Search Engine – a search engine that displays results from multiple search engines.

META tags – tags to describe various aspects about a Web page.

Microblogging – Microblogging refers to platforms allowing you to post information in snippets of 140 characters at a time. Example: Twitter.

Mirror Site - An identical site at a different address.

Mockup - An outline defining what a Webpage design should be.

Monetize - To extract income from a site. Example: AdSense.

Mousetrapping – the use of browser tricks in an effort to keep a visitor captive at a site, often by disabling the “Back” button or generated repeated pop-up windows.

Multivariate Testing – a method in marketing research where multiple variables in a control scenario are simultaneously changed and the ensuing alternate strategies tested, in order to improve the effectiveness of the final marketing strategy.


Natural Search Results (also: Organic Search Results) - The search engine results which are not sponsored, or paid for in any way.

Niche Marketing - A technique used by affiliate marketers - finding smaller "undiscovered" profitable niches through precise keyword research (usually long-tail keywords).

Nofollow - A command found in either the HEAD section of a web page or within individual link code, which instructs robots to not follow either any links on the page or the specific link.

Noindex - A command found in either the HEAD section of a web page or within individual link code, which instructs robots to not index the page or the specific link.


Opt-in - Registration on a site and giving permission to share your personal data with third parties or to receive e-mail announcements when a registration form is displayed.

Opt-in Email – email that is explicitly requested by the recipient.

Opt-Out - Disagree with a registration when a registration form is displayed by hitting back button, No or Cancel.

Organic Link - links published only because the webmaster considers them to add value for users.

Organic Search – The unpaid entries in a search engine results page that were derived based on their contents’ relevance to the keyword query.

Organic Traffic –  Non-paid visitors to your website who have found you using search queries on the search engines.

Outbound Links – Links on any Web page leading to another Web page, whether they are within the same site or another website.

Outreach - the process of asking (mainly by email) webmasters of other sites to link to your site


Page View (also: Pageview) – each visit to a single webpage. Used for traffic analysis purposes.

Pagejacking – theft of a page from the original site and publication of a copy (or near-copy) at another site.

PageRank –  value that Google assigns for pages and websites that it indexes, based on all the factors in its algorithm. Google does release an external PageRank scoring pages from 1-10 that you can check for any website, but this external number is not the same as the internal PageRank Google uses to determine search engine results. All independent search engines have their own version of PageRank.

Paid Inclusion – Advertising program where pages are guaranteed to be included in a search engine’s index in exchange for payment, though no guarantee of ranking well is typically given.

Paid Listings – Listings that search engines sell to advertisers, usually through paid placement or paid inclusion programs. In contrast, organic (natural) listings are not sold.

Paid Search – see Pay-per-click

Panda (also: Google Panda update) - A search filter stopping sites with poor quality content ranking into Google’s top search results. Released in February 2011 and continuously updated.

Pay per click (PPC) – online advertising in which payment is based on click-throughs.

Pay per lead (PPL) – online advertising in which payment is based on  leads.

Pay per sale (PPS) – online advertising in which payment is based on sales.

Pay-for-Performance –  see Pay-per-Click

Payment Threshold – the minimum accumulated commission an affiliate must earn to receive payment from an affiliate program.

Penguin (Also: Google Penguin Update) - catches sites spamming its search results, e.g.  those buying links or obtaining them through link networks designed primarily to boost Google rankings. Penguin penalizes such sites by ranking them very low in the search results or even de-index them. Launched in April 2012 and continuously updated.

Permission marketing – marketing centered around getting customer’s consent to receive information from a company.

1. In networking - sending an echo request to remote host in order to determine its availability and time for response.
2. In content marketing - letting the search engines, blog directories and other portal sites know that you published new content and where it is.

Podcast – a series of audio or video files that are syndicated over the Internet and stored on client computing devices for later playback.

Pop-Under – An advertisement that opens in a new Web Browser window once you visit a particular page or take some other action. Considered less annoying than Pop-Up ads because the new window appears behind the existing one.

Pop-Up – An advertisement where pop-ups open new windows on your screen that partially or wholly cover your current Web Browser window.

Portal – a site featuring a suite of commonly used services, serving as a starting point and frequent gateway to the Web (Web portal) or a niche topic (vertical portal).

Phishing - An unscrupulous practice devised to lure you into revealing your bank accounts, passwords, credit card numbers, PIN codes and other sensitive data. Phishers target you by sending e-mail messages that appear legitimate from well-known companies.


Quality Score (QS) – A numerical score AdWords assigns to various account components (e.g. campaigns, ads).

Query (Search Query)– Keyword or phrase entered into search field of search engine.


Rank – How well a particular Web page or website is listed in the Search Engine’s Results. Also known as position.

RankBrain - see: Google RankBrain

Ranking Factors - parameters used in search engines' algorithm defining the relevance and position of a webpage in SERP.  Google have over 200 ranking factors with different weight. These are kept secret and the SEO community just guesses about them.

Rate Card – document detailing prices for various ad placement options.

Real-time Personalization (RTP) - A web engagement method that marketers use to create meaningful, real-time interactions with targeted individuals through personalized communication across email, web, ads, and mobile.

Reciprocal Link – A link exchange between two sites. Both sites will display a link to the other site.

Referrals – Visitors arrived at a site from a link on another website or blog (not through search results or directly typing in the browser's address bar).

Relevance – In relation to PPC advertising, relevance is a measure of how closely your ad title, description, and keywords are related to the search query and the searcher’s expectations.

Responsive Design - type of Web design, showing the site adapted to display platform. The site will look in different ways on desktop computer, laptop, tablet, mobile phone etc. The aim is to give the best experience with the site according to the display device used.

Results Page – Also referred to as a Search Engine Results Page (SERP).

Retargeting (Remarketing) – Someone performs an action (often a visit to your site) and has a cookie placed on her or his browser. Then as they go visiting other sites around the Web, your ad appears in front of them, as a banner or other type of display ad, on whatever sites they visit.

Return on Investment (ROI) – the ratio of profits (or losses) to the amount invested.

Robot –See Bot.

robots.txt - a file in the root directory of a website used to control the behavior of search engine spiders (which pages to index or not to index, which links to follow or not, etc.).

RSS (Real Simple Syndication) – a family of web feed formats that leverages XML for distributing and sharing headlines and information from other web content (also known as syndication).

run of network (RON) – ad buying option in which ad placements may appear on any pages on sites within an ad network.

Run of Site (ROS) – A contract specifying Run of Site means that a Banner or other type of online advertisement can appear on any page, and usually in any open placement, of a particular website.


SaaS (Software as a Service) - A software distribution model in which applications are hosted by a vendor or service provider and made available to customers over a network, typically the Internet.

Scraping – The process of copying content from one Web property and using it on another.

SEM (Search Engine Marketing) – Both forms of marketing involving search engines – Search Engine Optimization and Paid Search Marketing (PPC Marketing).

Semantic search  - A system designed to improve the accuracy of a search by understanding the intention of the person conducting the search, as well as the context in which the terms are used. This allows searchers to input longer, more detailed, keyword phrases and questions in order to more accurately direct the search.

SERP (Search Engine Results Page) –  Web pages displayed by any Search Engine for any given search. They display both Natural (organic) Listings and Pay-Per-Click ads. How high you are listed and / or where your ad is shown depends on Search Engine Optimization; and paid Search Engine Marketing respectively.

Search Engine Spam – excessive manipulation to influence search engine rankings, often for pages which contain little or no relevant content.

Search Engine Submission – The act of submitting a URL for inclusion into a search engine’s index.

Search Retargeting – the use of a site visitor’s search history as a basis for the ads that the visitor will see.

Search Terms – A search term is a word or group of words that a person types into a Search Engine to find what they are looking for.

SEO (Search Engine Optimization) - the process of optimizing a website to reach highest possible position in SERP.

Shadow ban (also Stealth ban) - practice used by some moderators and webmasters. This is  a practice to make the contributor's post or comment in a website or forum visible by themselves only but invisible to anyone else. This ignores the spammers and Internet trolls but keeps them unaware that they are blocked and making them less likely to register a new account and post their spam or comments again.

Site Retargeting – Displaying ads to a visitor based on a visit to the site, or individual page of the site.

Site Search – search functionality specific to one site.

Social Media Monitoring - Process of monitoring and responding to mentions related to a business that occur in social media.

Social Networking – the process of creating, building, and nurturing virtual communities and relationships between people online.

Social Proof - In social media - the number of interactions a piece of content receives or the number of followers you have.

Spam – inappropriate commercial message of extremely low value.

Spider – see Bot

Splash Page – a branding page before the home page of a Web site.

Sponsorship – advertising that seeks to establish a deeper association and integration between an advertiser and a publisher, often involving coordinated beyond-the-banner placements.

Stealth ban - see Shadow ban

Surround Session – advertising sequence in which a visitor receives ads from one advertiser throughout an entire site visit.


Tags – Words or phrases used to describe, categorize and organize individual blog posts, videos, and pictures.

Trending Topic - Trending topics refer to the most talked about topics and hashtags on a social media network.

TANSTAAFL - Acronym for "There Ain't No Such Thing As A Free Lunch". From Robert Heinlein's The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress.

Targeting – Shaping internet marketing campaigns to attract certain specific groups of prospective clients - e.g. by gender, age group, location etc.

TCP/IP - Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. The protocols that are the basis for transmitting and routing data packets on the Internet.

Text Ad – advertisement using text-based hyperlinks.

Thread - A series of messages with the same subject. It consists of an original message and all the replies and replies to replies that follow.

Title tag – HTML tag used to define the text in the top line of a Web browser, also used by many search engines as the title of search listings.

TLD (Top Level Domain) - The TLD means what comes at the end of the main domain without pages - e.g. for our the TLD is .eu .

Topic Modeling – A SEO strategy used when creating or optimizing content based on the primary keyword selected for a page.

ToS - Terms of Service.

Traceroute - An Internet utility that shows the full connection path between your site and another Internet address.

Tracking Code – A snippet of code that allows an advertiser to track the effectiveness of various aspects of an advertisement.

Trick Banner – a banner ad that attempts to trick people into clicking, often by imitating an operating system or error to be repaired message.

TTL (Time to Live) - used when a "ping," or a request for a response, is sent to another computer, such as a server. The TTL represents the time for response in ms (milliseconds).

Two Tier Affiliate Program – affiliate program structure whereby affiliates earn commissions on their conversions as well as conversions of webmasters they refer to the program.


Underdelivery – delivery of less impressions, visitors, or conversions than contracted for a specified period of time.

Unique Value Proposition (UVP) – What sets your product, service, or company apart from others and why potential clients should care enough to choose you.

Unique Visitors – individuals who have visited a Web site (or network) at least once in a during a fixed time frame.

Universal Search – The placement of multiple types of results within a general search so that a user receives images, videos, local search results, news articles, and more next to general Web pages.

URL (Uniform Resource Locator) - The address of specific Web page. The URL of this page is

URL Spoofing (Also: Spoofing) - Attempting to masquerade or closely mimic the URL displayed in a Web browser's address bar. Used in phishing attacks and other online scams to make a false website appear legitimate, the attacker obscures the actual URL by overlaying a legitimate looking address or by using a similarly spelled URL.

Usability – How easy it is for a user to navigate a website and find the information needed.

User Experience (UX) - UX is about how people interact with your product and how they report their experience of that interaction. Do not mistake with Customer Experience (CX). CX is broader term and is about how customers interact with your brand at-large. It looks at how satisfied customers are with your business as a whole.


Viral - Instance in which a piece of content - YouTube video, blog article, photo, etc. - achieves noteworthy awareness. Relies heavily on word of mouth and frequent sharing.

Viral Marketing – technique which encourages people to pass along a marketing message.

VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) - Technology that allows phone calls to be made over the Internet.

Volunteer Directory – a Web directory staffed primarily by unpaid volunteer editors.

VPN (Virtual Private Network) - A private network within a public network, usually on the Internet. Privacy for the virtual network is achieved through encryption.



Web directory – organized, categorized listings of Web sites.

Web feed (also: Feed) A file, usually in XML format, containing headlines and summaries of fast-changing Web content, like news stories, podcasts, and blogs. Web feeds provide links to full versions of content for subscription or one-time download; they can also be shared and republished by other websites, creating a sort of online syndication. See also: RSS.

Web Site Usability – the ease with which visitors are able to use a Web site.

Webinar – Web Seminar or  virtual seminar.

White Hat SEO –  SEO techniques that are completely ethical and accepted by the Search Engines.

Whois – a utility that returns ownership information about domains.

Widget - Interactive graphic component, like a button, check box, window, or text box. Also refers to small desktop programs that display real-time information and provide quick access to commonly used functions.

Wiki – A user written, controlled and edited reference site.  Example: Wikipedia.

Word-of-mouth Marketing – a marketing method that relies on person-to-person social interactions to promote a product.


XML (eXtensible Markup Language) - Language used to format and present information on the Web. Unlike HTML, it does not have a fixed set of formatting tags; rather, it is a meta-language that gives programmers the flexibility to create their own markup tags and thereby organize and present information in innovative ways.


Yobibyte (Abbreviation: YiB) - the largest unit of measurement for data storage, equals 2^80, or 1,208,925,819,614,629,174,706,176 bytes.


Zero-day (also: 0-Day) Vulnerability - Security hole that leaves software, hardware or firmware defenseless against an attack that occurs the very same day the vulnerability is discovered.

Zero-day (also: 0-day) Exploit - attack that takes advantage of a security vulnerability on the same day that the vulnerability becomes generally known. There are zero days between the time the vulnerability is discovered and the first attack.

Zombie(also: Bot) - A PC hijacked by a hacker and used to do what the hacker wants without the owner even noticing - e.g. to run DoS attacks or to send spam emails.

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